Principles of Broadcasting

One of the subjects in mass communication which i am very familiar with is the “Introduction to Broadcast Media” (MC-3 @ the USJR). Broadcasting runs in my blood being with in the industry since 1987. Being heavily involved in the news production on daily basis, i acquired huge stock knowledge about broadcasting in both theories and practical uses.

Whenever MC-3 is offered in the first semester at the University of San Jose-Recoletos where i had a five-year teaching stint, i always see to it i can explain the technical terms in layman’s words. My technical training has put me on the advantage to explain well about the matter. I told my class that they should know the technical side of broadcasting to fully understand it.

Here’s my presentation to the class on the principles of broadcasting:

DIY: Installing a CDR-King’s P280-Outdoor TV Antenna

It’s been a while that i haven’t purchased a product from CDR-King multi-media store as a protest of the dismal performance of their products. However, from time-to-time i visited the store to check on some weird if not interesting or amazing gadgets. CDR-King’s line of products are full of oddity-either the product performs below par or it works well even at a cheap price.

Lately, i came across the store’s Outdoor TV Antenna with a price ranging from P250 – P450. This is quite cheaper than Baron antenna or any other antenna designs sold at more than P500 in any electronics stores.

So, i settled and gave a try for this 280-peso Skyra Outdoor Antenna GT-60N inside this very compact box.


The box contains 2 sets of directors, a UHF Dipole antenna, a VHF Dipole antenna, an antenna main boom, and some screws and bolts.I also bought earlier, a set of Precision Screwdrivers also from CDR-King which i used in assembling the antenna.


Assembling is easy by just following the installation manual.Just be familiar with the markings on the antenna boom.


The antenna boom is made of plastic material with a steel part for the pipe holder. The RF connector input jack is appropriately placed in between the UHF and VHF dipoles.


The longest element in this antenna design is the VHF folded dipole with a total length of 29-inches. It is placed 3.5-inches from the 5-inch UHF bowtie dipole. According to hdtvprimer, folded dipole antenna is designed to solve an efficiency problem while the bowtie dipole antenna has a wider bandwidth. These dipoles are considered driver elements in the antenna system and the only ones connected to the cable from the TV set.


The two directors in the design are measuring 4-inches and 3.5-inches and placed 4-inches apart.


A clamp for attaching the antenna boom to a pipe, an RF connector, and a waterproof cap to be placed at the RF connector jack to protect the connection from rain. Screws are provided in the box.


The result is a compact TV antenna suitable for VHF, UHF, and FM broadcast signals.


Frequency range: VHF 88-230Mhz (5-12 channel)

UHF 470-862Mhz (21-69 channel)

Polarization: Horizontal

FEATURES: (according to the manufacturer)

  • SMT technology
  • Stable performance of excellent reception for all Digital TV broadcast signals, analog signals and radio programs.
  • For outdoor use, good configuration to guarantee good reception.
  • High sensitivity and high overload resistance
  • Stable design and suitable construction to avoid bad influence
  • High reliability and firm construction
  • Waterproof and UV resistant
  • Firm aluminum elements are UV resistant and waterproof to withstand different weather conditions
  • Easy installation
  • Excellent design, small package saves space and structure fix in minutes.
The performance of the Skyra Outdoor Antenna GT-60N is NOT OUTSTANDING on my case. However, it doesn’t mean that the antenna design is not working. TV antenna works in different environmental conditions. In my case, i installed the antenna atop the mansanitas tree where it could most likely pick up signals from the TV transmitters. My place is blocked by a high wall of a warehouse. Hence, TV signals are hampered by the concrete wall.
Nevertheless, i could already get good signal for the lower channels: Ch. 3, Ch.7, etc and my TV set could already pick up Ch, 21, Ch, 23 and the rest of the UHF channels.The Skyra antenna design is much better than the Yagi design (e.g. Baron Antenna) which is design for only one frequency (Ch. 2 Manila for Baron design).
 I am planning to buy the other series of the Skyra Outdoor Antenna, especially the one with longer elements, more directors and those with reflectors for better reception.  🙂

First Digital Camera by Kodak

I stumbled upon this article by The New York Times which is an extract from a post on Kodak’s web site in 2007. It’s about the first Digital Camera invented by Steve Sasson for Kodak.

The camera model is amazing. It took 23-seconds for it to record an image to its recorder. The camera records the image on a cassette tape of a Super 8 Movie Camera.

When this camera model was presented to the public, the image was played on a custom player and was viewed on a TV monitor. You can imagine how bulky and stressful to have a digital image before. Nevertheless, it succeeded in producing a “film-less photography” which is now the basis of the digital imaging.